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Batur UNESCO Global Geopark

Batur UNESCO Global Geopark
Batur UNESCO Global Geopark is located in northeast Bali, the most popular international tourist destination in Indonesia. It covers an area of 370.5 km2, at an altitude of 920-2152 m a.s.l., the outer-caldera wall surrounds the inner-caldera wall, Mt. Batur and the lake. Most of the Natural Tourist Park of Mt. Batur dan Payang Hill, is a protected forest area included in the UNESCO Global Geopark area.
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Beauty of Batur (Image:
Batur UNESCO Global Geopark includes two volcanic calderas and presents a complete volcanic landscape with caldera walls, cones and craters, geothermal phenomena (fumaroles, hot springs), a lake, lava flows, pyroclastic flows and tephra. Two cataclysmic eruptions that occurred 29,000 years and 20,000 years ago produced an outer-caldera (old) and inner-caldera (young), respectively, from which the grand landscape scenery originate. Between the years 1804 and 2000, Mt. Batur erupted at least 22 times forming a strato-volcano which is one of 127 active volcanoes in Indonesia, and an important component of the Pacific “ring of fire”. The phenomenon of double-calderas with a crescent-shaped volcanic lake (7 km long, 1.5 km wide) and located 1,031 m a.s.l. was called the finest caldera in the world. The uniqueness of the area’s geology of volcanic origin, endemic flora and fauna, and original culture motivated by the Balinese Hindu religion is a perfect combination of different heritages of the Earth.
2. Geodiversity[2]
In September 2012 the Mount Batur Caldera region was designated by UNESCO as a member of the Global Geopark Network (GGN) Park due to the natural beauty, archaeological and geological values, and the cultural uniqueness of its people. Batur Geopark region is situated in the Kintamani District, Bangli Regency, Bali Province, located at the altitude from 1,000 meters to 2172 meters above sea level, and has moderate climate with average temperatures between 15 ° - 21 ° C. Geographically the Mount Batur area is located at position 8 ° 11' S - 8 ° 18 'S and 115 ° 18' E - 115 ° 27' E. Based on spatial aspects, Mount Batur has a caldera measuring 13.8 x 10 km, and is one of the largest and most beautiful calderas  in the world (Van Bemmelen, 1949). Caldera height ranges from 1,267 m - 2,152 m. Inside the caldera there is a crescent-shaped lake that occupies the southeastern section along 7.5 km and a maximum width of 2.5 km, a circumference of about 22 km, and an area of about 16 km², which is named Lake Batur. The Mount Batur area has beautiful landscapes, unique cultures, and unique archaeological and geological values. Denpasar - Kintamani ranges about 53 km through Batubulan - Tegallalang - Tampaksiring - Kintamani which can be reached by road in about 2 hours. Along the road, there are many temples and buildings with Balinese architecture, along with art galleries, souvenir stalls, and various forms of handicrafts become attractive performances. There are natural stones, wood, glass and silver craft centers on two sides of the road that tourists can visit on the route. Dozens of kilometers before Kintamani, mountain atmosphere dominates the landscape, with temperatures getting cooler. After Tampaksiring District in Gianyar Regency, there are several coffee plantations offered as Agrotourism locations.
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Mount Batur Caldera (Image:
In Kintamani there is the Batur Volcano Museum which was inaugurated by the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources on May 10, 2007. Standing on an area of 1.09 hectares, this museum stores various volcanic information, both in Indonesia in general and in Mount Batur in particular. From this museum, visitors can see three cones of Mount Batur lined up from the northeast - southwest, namely Batur I (1,717 meters), Batur II (1,589 meters), and Batur III (1,410 meters). All three grow inside the Batur Caldera which was formed from two major eruption phases (around 29,300 years ago and 20,150 years ago), namely the Outer Caldera and the Inner Caldera. The elliptical outer caldera with a size of 13.8 x 10 km stretches to the northwest - southeast. In the southeast part of the Inner Caldera is a lake (Lake Batur) which is formed in the shape of a crescent moon with a length of 7 kilometers and a width of 1.5 kilometers at an altitude of 1,031 meters (above sea level). This lake amazed the Dutch geologist Van Bemmelen (1949) and he called Lake Batur one of the largest and most beautiful caldera in the world.
Volcanic material that was ejected from the eruption of Mount Batur, recorded 26 eruptions during the period 1804-2000, has become a source of mining and nurtured community livelihood in the Batur Area. A large area of Batur volcano, especially in the western and southern part is rocky and has very little flat land. All the volcanic geosites have been developed as geological heritages. Rocks and landscapes are recorded the long history of the formation of volcanoes and the evolution of their cycles during geological periods and space. This knowledge should be transferred to visitors so that they understand and give an appreciation of the earth and its contents properly. It is expected to foster efforts to conserve nature for sustainability so that it can be passed on to future generations. Lake Batur has an irrigation function. Water from this lake flows into a number of major rivers in Bali, such as the Unda River in the south, the Suni River in the west, and Bayumala in the north.
3. Population and cultural values
From that flow, river water is divided to irrigate rice fields and support the subak system. Subak was also just declared as a world heritage by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee. On the outskirts of Lake Batur there are a number of temples that can be visited as tourist villages, some of which have been designated as archaeological sites, including: Ulun Lake Batur Temple, Pura Pancering Jagat Terunyan, and Bukit Mentik Temple. Across Lake Batur, there is the Terunyan Village, which is secluded on the east coast and is usually reached by boat. The Terunyan people are called the typical Bali Aga (native people). In contrast to the Balinese people who generally burn corpses (cremation) in the Ngaben ceremony, the Terunyan people put the bodies on the ground and are fenced in by "serving food" from woven bamboo. Batur region also has a unique biodiversity. One of them is a Kintamani dog that has a wolf-like head and a body similar to a cau-cau dog from China. In addition, in Kintamani also grows edelweis, hillside trees, oranges, and typical mountain horticultural plants such as cabbage, chili, and tomatoes. Administratively, Batur Geopark is located in Bangli Regency which is divided into 4 districts, namely: Susut, Bangli, Tembuku, and Kintamani, and 72 villages divided into 322 banjars. The Bangli population consists of 213,808 people based on the 2008 Population Census, with a population growth of 0.92%, with an average population density of 411 people / km2 and a gender ratio of 99,50.
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Ulun Lake Batur Temple (Image:
The UNESCO Global Geopark is occupied by 15 villages located in the district of Kintamani, Bangli Regency, Bali Province.
The local economy of the UNESCO Global Geopark is mainly based on agriculture and tourism. Kintamani sweet orange and civet coffee are geoproducts of Batur area, in addition to wooden craft, bamboo and wood carving. The Kintamani dog is a local species, native to the island of Bali and originating from Sukawarna Village, Batur.
Through the Batur UNESCO Global Geopark the geosites become the object for conservation, education and growth of local economy through sustainable tourism. The UNESCO Global Geopark developed a program of "School to Geopark" (students explore and recognize nature) and "Geopark to School” (disseminating information about the natural environment of Batur and its Earth’s heritage to schools). Since 2014 students from Singapore choose Batur UNESCO Global Geopark for their annual fieldwork in volcanology science. Batur Volcano Museum, which has developed into a Batur UNESCO Global Geopark Museum, provides educational facilities to visitors. Geology and biology, in combination with cultural components are utilized as a tool for regional development in a sustainable manner.

4. Biodiversity
The moderate climate, fertile soil and high altitude are very suitable for coffee commodities in Bangli. In Kintamani-Bangli, coffee plants are managed by using organic or natural fertilizers and minimizing the use of pesticides to maintain the quality and taste of kintamani coffee. In addition, farmer groups enclose their coffee plantations and allow Luwak to live wild in the garden because Luwak who live wildly are able to choose the best coffee to be digested compared to Luwak that is caged or fed so natural processes can be achieved. Kab-Bangli Regency's Agriculture and Forestry Service in synergy with the Bangli tourism community to manage this Luwak coffee plantation in agro-tourism. (Image and article source:
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Kintamani dog (Image:
Kintamani also has a kintamani dog originating from the mountainous area of ​​Kintamani, the island of Bali. Kintamani dogs are famous for its braveness. The phenotype of the Kintamani Dog is easy to recognize, it can be clearly compared between the Kintamani Dog and the local dogs, or dogs crossing between the same breed or other crosses. Kintamani Dog phenotype standards include general characteristics, like height up to the gumba, basic pigmentation, skin, head shape, ears, eyes, nose, teeth, neck shape, body shape, legs and tail have in common.