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Island ecology
The Penghu archipelago is composed of more than 64 islets. The island ecology was shaped by  the contemporary characteristics of the people and the cultural ecology of the islets. For example, the winter monsoon may bring very bad weather conditions, such as strong winds with salt, so that it is very difficult for vegetation to grow. During the summer time, the severe sunshine causes a lack of water for vegetation. Only the vegetation which can resist the salty, strong wind and dry condition can survive. Island ecology is fragile under the harsh environments in Penghu. However due to climate change, the whole environment is now even easier to damage. In 2008 there was an extreme climate change event in China and eventually the cold melt snow water input to the Penghu area which caused huge damage to marine ecology. Fortunately, Penghu has its own way for resilience to climate change. For such a harsh environmental, Penghu does need to find a way for adaption to the impact of climate change. For a healthier marine environment, there is a need for protection of the environment for sustainable development.
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Coral at Penghu
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Marine resources
The ocean is the single most significant resource that human beings inherit from nature. However, due to the ocean's waves, currents and tidal flows, there are some limits to how human society utilizes marine resources. Marine resources are the major resources of Penghu. Due to the rich nutrients brought by the Kuroshio current, many fisheries surround the Penghu archipelago. Rich marine conditions provide endless resources to form abundant ecosystems and products. Conserving a sound ecology of the Penghu archipelago will ensue its sustainable development. As the sustainable development of marine resources depends on the entire marine ecosystem, making sure the nature reserves of Penghu are protected properly is the basis for sustainable marine resources.
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In terms of the fishing technology of Penghu, longline fishing is a traditionally important technology. It gives Penghu much wealth. Recently, aquaculture relies on the development of major aquaculture technologies and produces excellent results. The South Penghu National Park is established to protect the marine resources and its sustainable development. In the past and for the future, marine resources have been and will be the lifeblood of the Penghu archipelago. The wide inter-tidal zone is an important habitat for coastal life. Many types of shellfish can be found here. Between Chiyu and Beiliao, only the sea could be witnessed during high tide. At the low tide, the tidal flat shows a very different scene of land tied together by beaches known as a tombolo. The beach connecting the land between Chiyu and Beiliao is a gravel or boulder beach. The ebb and flow of the ocean and sea water create a special scene here. Employing the right timing to walk over the flat tidal, plain and to get to the volcanic crater to witness it, becomes crucial to tourists. During the exploration, differential weathering and the braided rocks of Chiyu become the most significant attraction to the tourists. However, for safety reasons, tourists need to pay attention to the tidal timing in order to return to the land safely.

Intertidal Biota
Interdal zones in Siaomenyu can be divided into 4 different zones. The biota within each subzone has its specific composition:
Graval shore:
Many species hide under gravel. The most common species of this subzone include Lunella coronata, Nerita spp., cowrie, bivalve, etc
Reef shore 
It is located underneath the cliff. To prevent from being washed away by waves, the interdal species in this subzone need to have strong adhesive abilities. The commonly seen species of this subzone include agael, benthic mussel, and crustaceans such as Liolophura japonica, Saccostrea mordax, etc.
Sand shore
Padinas and ocypodideas, etc are commonly found on the sand shore of the southwestern Penghu coast
Tide pool
The tide pool is a small pond to collect water. It is located on the abrasion platforms. The closer to the low-tide line the tide pool is, the more abundant species there are. The tide pool species include Algae, Juvenile fish, Sea urchin, Sea cucumber, etc. Sometimes a small amount of living corals can be found inside the tide pool, too. 
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Plant resources
The most commonly documented plants in Penghu include fan cactus and agaves which were introduced to Penghu in the 16th century. During the Japanese colonial era (1895-1945), white leucaena were introduced to the islets for green afforestation, and fire wheels were introduced for the same purpose and are now the county flower of Penghu. These plants have been adapted and domesticated. Five species of plants, including fan cactus, fire wheels, Spanish needles, white popinacs and agaves, have become the dominant plants of Penghu. Banyan trees are the county trees of Penghu. It is not only a common street tree in Penghu, but also the most representative plant for drought and salt tolerance. In the village of Tong-liang, a Banyan tree has grown so big and its air roots have become bundles of tree trunks to form a huge canopy in front of an old and attractive temple. Here the name of Banyan represents the beauty of a small village. in the archipelago. In addition, Casuarina equisetifolia (coast oaks), leafless willows, and Araucaria are the most common afforestation and street species.
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The winter monsoon winds affect the growth of plants in Penghu and for the plants to grow well is very challenging. Due to the strong prevailing winds, some plants cannot begin to grow. Only salt- and wind-tolerant plants can survive, especially on the windward slopes. Common green plants on the hillside undergoes a silent survival war.
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Bird ecology
Penghu has abundant bird ecology and resources. The annual tern breeding season is an important activity for bird watchers. The natural reserve areas in northern Penghu are important habitats for tern breeding. Penghu provides a rich bird ecosystem, due to its location between continental China and Taiwan Island. It is a very good transitional habitat for migratory birds. Migratory birds come and stay here annually to breed their next generation as the archipelago provides great ecological environments with the food and ecological habitats needed for migratory birds to breed and grow. Thus, it could be said that Penghu is one of the greatest bird watching places in the world. In terms of bird habitat, Penghu has many attractions for birds to settle. It is mainly food chain ecology and resources for birds to inhabit, breed and grow. Seasonal transitional periods are the best time for bird watchers to come to Penghu.

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Bird watching
Common species include Japanese house bat, house shrew, bandicoot rat, brown rat, etc
The amphibia species found in Penghu are spectacled toad and rice frog. Spectacled toads appear in the grass near the ponds. In the rainy season, these toads near the Siaomen stream never stop croacking. The number of rice frogs is scarce. They usually come out at the night after raining
The butterfly species found in Penghu include common mormon, white butterfly, motted emigrant, yellow butterfly, Junonia orithya, Argyreus hyperbius, Hypolimnas bolina kezia, Zizeeria maha okinawana, Borbo cinnara, etc. Among these butterfly species, common mormon and Zizeeria maha okinawana are the most common ones. 

Reference: Guide book for the interpreters of Penghu Marine Geopark